Which heart surgeries are the best for patients with a congenital heart condition?
The term “heart surgery” has been a hot topic since the first heart transplants were performed on humans in 1948.
But in 2017, it was officially replaced by the phrase “heart valve replacement” to describe the treatment for a patient who is born with a defective heart valve.
The procedure can be done in a hospital or on an outpatient basis.
In most cases, a patient’s heart is removed, a new heart valve is implanted and the valve is closed with surgery.
But a small number of people with a heart condition are born with one or more defective valves.
A patient with one defective valve can also have a heart defect that makes it difficult for them to pump blood.
For these patients, a heart valve replacement can be a long, expensive and risky procedure.
“You have to take the life of the patient and put their life at risk,” said Dr. Eric C. Bostrom, a cardiologist at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta, who specializes in heart valve problems.
“It’s very important to be aware that you’re putting the patient’s life at stake,” he said.
“And they need to be prepared to do the best they can with the limited resources available.”
In the United States, there are more than 1,000 such heart valve replacements annually, according to the American Heart Association.
Patients with a defect that affects the valves can usually expect to need about seven to eight years to have the valves repaired.
But they can still have a delay in the treatment, said Drs.
Robert A. Gildert and Brian A. Litt, both of the University of Arizona, and Dr. Matthew B. Lapp, of Emory’s School of Medicine.
“The first few weeks can be very challenging,” Dr. Lipp said.
The delay can also be very frustrating for patients.
“Patients often find themselves in an extremely difficult situation,” Dr Bostrome said.
In some cases, patients with congenital cardiac defects have a very different set of risks and benefits than patients without.
A congenital defect can cause the valve to stop pumping blood, leading to a buildup of fluid in the heart.
The valve can’t be fixed without surgery, so the valve must be replaced.
Patients may also develop chronic pain from having to constantly pump blood and need to keep using a device that restricts the amount of blood pumped to the heart, called a defibrillator.
A defect that causes the valve and the heart to be too close to each other can lead to the valve opening, which can lead the valve into damage and block the blood supply to the brain.
Patients who have a defect also can develop a blockage in the blood vessels that supply the heart and heart valve, which may lead to blockages of the heart valves themselves.
In addition, if the defect is very large, it can cause serious damage to the blood vessel in the brain, which leads to strokes and death.
“If the valve that you have is damaged, it’s very, very difficult to have it repaired and get the blood flowing back into the heart,” Dr Litt said.
Patients can also face long waits for heart surgery.
While a hospital stay is necessary to repair the damaged valve, there is no guarantee that the patient will survive.
Patients need to wait at least six weeks after the heart valve surgery to have a second heart valve installed.
If the patient survives the first surgery, they can have a third valve replaced, and so on.
Some patients will have to wait six months to be admitted to a hospital and receive a second, and potentially a third heart valve to replace.
Patients also can have heart valve surgeries at home, at a clinic or at a private practice.
In many cases, the surgery is performed in the outpatient setting.
But sometimes patients don’t have to undergo surgery at home because the family members who have been working with the patient for a long time can do the surgery at the home of the family doctor.
“Sometimes it can be difficult for a family member to do a heart surgery in the home,” Dr Calkins said.
But if the patient has the right paperwork and is a registered nurse or physician, they’re usually able to get a second valve.
“They do have the right kind of paperwork to get the second valve and do the heart surgery,” Dr Avent said.
Doctors and patients can discuss the surgery, which includes the risk of complications, in person, Dr Lipp added.
“When you’re doing it at home or at the clinic, you’re also getting the patient to really understand the risks and the potential benefits of the surgery,” he added.
In 2017, the American Academy of Pediatrics released guidelines to doctors and parents on how to treat congenital hearts.
They recommend that doctors and their families have conversations with their patients about the risks of heart valve repair.
“Talk to the patient about how he or she can minimize the risks that they have to consider,” Dr Gildernes said.
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